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X 51A Waverider 617x416 X 51A Wave Rider Hypersonic Aircraft

X-51A WaveRider

Mission
The experimental X-51A Waverider is an unmanned, autonomous supersonic combustion ramjet-powered hypersonic flight test demonstrator for the U.S. Air Force.

Features
The X-51A is designed to be launched from an airborne B-52 Stratofortress bomber. The flight test vehicle stack is approximately 25 feet long and includes a modified solid rocket booster from an Army Tactical Missile, a connecting interstage, and the X-51A cruiser. The nearly wingless cruiser is designed to ride its own shockwave, thus the nickname, Waverider. The distinctive, shark-nosed cruiser has small controllable fins and houses the heart of the system, an SJY61 supersonic combustion ramjet or scramjet engine built by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne designed to burn JP-7 jet fuel. Boeing’s Phantom Works performed overall air vehicle design, assembly and testing for the X-51′s various component systems.

The X-51 was made primarily using standard aerospace materials such as aluminum, steel, inconel, and titanium. Some carbon/carbon composites of the leading edges of fins and cowls are used. For thermal protection, the vehicle utilizes a Boeing designed silica-based thermal protection system as well as Boeing Reusable Insulation tiles, similar to those on board the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiters.

Four X-51As were built for the Air Force. The X-51A program is a technology demonstrator and was not designed to be a prototype for weapon system. It was designed to pave the way to future hypersonic weapons, hypersonic intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and future access to space. Since scramjets are able to burn atmospheric oxygen, they don’t need to carry large fuel tanks containing oxidizer like conventional rockets, and are being explored as a way to more efficiently launch payloads into orbit.

In addition to scalable scramjet propulsion, other key technologies that will be demonstrated by the X-51A include thermal protection systems materials, airframe and engine integration, and high-speed stability and control.

Background
The X-51A represents one of the service’s most significant reinvestments in hypersonic flight since the rocket-powered X-15 program which flew 50 years earlier.

Air Force officials anticipate the X-51A program will provide a foundation of knowledge required to develop the game changing technologies needed for future access to space and hypersonic weapon applications. For example, hypersonic speeds on the order of flying 600 nautical miles in 10 minutes may provide the ability to accurately engage a long-distance target very rapidly.

The X-51A program is a collaborative effort of the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, with industry partners The Boeing Company and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Program management is accomplished by the Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.

Hypersonic flight, normally defined as beginning at Mach 5, five times the speed of sound, presents unique technical challenges with heat and pressure, which make conventional turbine engines impractical. Program officials said producing thrust with a scramjet has been compared to lighting a match in a hurricane and keeping it burning.

The Air Force currently plans to fly each X-51A on identical flight profiles. Like the X-15, the X-51A is designed to be carried aloft by a B-52 mother ship launched from the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. It is released at approximately 50,000 feet over the Pacific Ocean Point Mugu Naval Air Warfare Center Sea Range. The solid rocket booster accelerates the X-51A for 30 seconds to approximately Mach 4.5, before being jettisoned. Then the cruiser’s scramjet engine, remarkable because it has virtually no moving parts, ignites. The ignition sequence begins burning ethylene, transitioning over approximately 10 seconds to the same JP-7 jet fuel once used by the SR-71 Blackbird.

Powered by its scramjet engine, the X-51A will accelerate to approximately Mach 6 as it climbs to nearly 70,000 feet. Hypersonic combustion generates intense heat so routing of the engine’s own JP-7 fuel will serve to both cool the engine and heat the fuel to optimum operating temperature for combustion. The fuel load and flight profile provides for a 240-second engine burn, transmitting vast amounts of telemetry data on its systems to orbiting aircraft and ground stations, before the vehicle exhausts its fuel supply, splashes down into the Pacific and is destroyed, as planned. Flight test vehicles are not recovered.

The X-51A development team elected from the outset not to build recovery systems in the flight test vehicles, in an effort to control costs and focus funding on the vehicle’s fuel-cooled scramjet engine. A U.S. Navy P-3 Orion aids in transmitting telemetry data to engineers at both Naval Air Station Point Mugu and Vandenberg AFB, Calif., before it arrives at its final destination, the Ridley Mission Control Center at Edwards AFB.

Conceived in 2004, the X-51A made its first “captive carry” flight Dec. 9, 2009. The flight test verified the B-52′s high-altitude performance and handling qualities with the X-51 attached and tested communications and telemetry systems, but the vehicle remained attached to the B-52s wing.

The X-51A made history during its first supersonic combustion ramjet-powered hypersonic flight May 26, 2010, off the southern California Pacific coast. Officials said the flight test vehicle flew as anticipated for nearly 200 seconds, with the scramjet accelerating the vehicle to approximately Mach 5, nearly 3,400 miles per hour. The fuel-cooled scramjet performed as planned transmitting normal telemetry for more than 140 seconds, then observing a decrease in thrust and acceleration for another 30 seconds. An anomaly then resulted in a loss of telemetry, and the test was terminated and vehicle was destroyed by flight controllers on command.

Despite the anomaly, the May 26 flight is considered the first use of a practical hydrocarbon fueled scramjet in flight. The longest previous hypersonic scramjet flight test performed by a NASA X-43 in 2004 was faster, but lasted only about 12 seconds and used less logistically supportable hydrogen fuel.

Following an extensive analysis of flight data from the X-51A’s first hypersonic flight test, slight modifications are planned to strengthen the rear seal area near the engine exhaust nozzles for the three remaining X-51As.

The next two X-51A flights ended prematurely. The second vehicle was boosted by the rocket to just over Mach 5, separated and lit the scramjet on ethylene. When the vehicle attempted to transition to JP7 fuel operation, it experienced an inlet un-start. The hypersonic vehicle attempted to restart and oriented itself to optimize engine start conditions, but was unsuccessful. The vehicle continued in a controlled flight orientation until it flew into the ocean within the test range.

The third X-51A safely separated from the B-52, however after 16 seconds under the rocket booster, a fault was identified with one of the cruiser control fins. Once the X-51 separated from the rocket booster, approximately 15 seconds later, the cruiser was not able to maintain control due to the faulty control fin and was lost.

 

The final flight of the X-51A occurred May 1, 2013 and was the most successful in terms of meeting all the experiment objectives. The cruiser traveled more than 230 nautical miles in just over six minutes reaching a peak speed of Mach 5.1.

Overall the more than 9 minutes of data collected from the X-51A program was an unprecedented achievement proving the viability of air-breathing, high-speed scramjet propulsion using hydrocarbon fuel.

article 2187520 14890949000005DC 816 634x400 X 51A Wave Rider Hypersonic Aircraft

 

General Characteristics
Primary Function:
 Hypersonic scramjet-powered flight test demonstrator
Contractors: Boeing, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne
Power Plant: JP-7 fueled/cooled SJY61 supersonic combustion ramjet
Thrust: 500 – 1,000 pound class
Length: Full stack 25 feet; Cruiser 14 feet; Interstage 5 feet; Solid rocket booster 6 feet
Weight: Approx. 4,000 pounds
Fuel Capacity: Approx. 270 pounds JP-7
Speed: 3,600+ miles per hour (at Mach 6)
Range: 400+ nautical miles
Ceiling: 70,000 + feet
Crew:  ground station monitored
Unit Cost: Unavailable
Initial Flight Test: May 26, 2010
Inventory: Four purpose-built for flight test, not designed for recovery (one vehicle expended as of Feb. 1, 2011)


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South Korea Orders FA-50 Fighters in $1 Billion Deal

FA 501 300x137 South Korea Orders FA 50 Fighters in $1 Billion Deal

 

A Defense Department report released today describes China’s military modernization and the Chinese army’s interaction with other forces, including those of the United States, a senior Pentagon official said today.

The annual report — titled “2013 Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China” — went to Congress today and covers China’s security and military strategies; developments in China’s military doctrine, force structure and advanced technologies; the security situation in the Taiwan strait; U.S.–China military-to-military contacts and the U.S. strategy for such engagement; and the nature of China’s cyber activities directed against the Defense Department.

David F. Helvey, deputy assistant secretary of defense for East Asia, briefed Pentagon reporters on the report. He noted that the report, which DOD coordinates with other agencies, “reflects broadly the views held across the United States government.” The report is factual and not speculative, he noted.

Helvey said the trends in this year’s report show the rising power increasing its rapid military modernization program. “We see a good deal of continuity in terms of the modernization priorities,” Helvey noted, despite the 2012 and 2013 turnover to new leadership, which happens roughly every decade in China.

The report notes China launched its first aircraft carrier in 2012 and is sustaining investments in advanced short- and medium-range conventional ballistic missiles, land-attack and anti-ship cruise missiles, counter-space weapons and military cyberspace systems.

Helvey noted these technologies all bolster China’s anti-access and area-denial capabilities.

“The issue here is not one particular weapons system,” he said. “It’s the integration and overlapping nature of these weapons systems into a regime that can potentially impede or restrict free military operations in the Western Pacific. So that’s something that we monitor and are concerned about.”

Helvey said the report provides a lot of information, but also raises some questions. “What concerns me is the extent to which China’s military modernization occurs in the absence of the kind of openness and transparency that others are certainly asking of China,” he added.

That lack of transparency, he noted, has effects on the security calculations of others in the region. “And so it’s that uncertainty, I think, that’s of greater concern,” he said.

Helvey added the report noted China has “increased assertiveness with respect to its maritime territorial claims” over the past year. China disputes sovereignty with Japan over islands in the East China Sea, and has other territorial disputes with regional neighbors in the South China Sea.

“With respect to these claims, we encourage all parties to the different disputes or interactions to address their issues peacefully, through diplomatic channels in a manner consistent with international law,” he said.

Helvey noted China’s relations with Taiwan have been consistent. “Over the past year, cross-strait relations have improved,” he said. “However, China’s military buildup shows no signs of slowing.”

China also is building its space and cyberspace capabilities, Helvey said. He noted that in 2012, China conducted 18 space launches and expanded its space-based intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, navigation, meteorological and communication satellite constellations.

“At the same time, China continues to invest in a multidimensional program to deny others access to and use of space,” Helvey said.

Addressing China’s cyber capabilities, Helvey said the Chinese army continues to develop doctrine, training and exercises that emphasize information technology and operations.

“In addition, in 2012, numerous computer systems around the world, including those owned by the United States government, continued to be targeted for intrusions, some of which appear to be attributable directly to [Chinese] government and military organizations,” he added.

Helvey noted a positive trend in U.S.-China engagements over the year, including several senior-leader visits culminating in then-Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta’s visit to Beijing in September.

The two sides also explored practical areas of cooperation, he said, including the first counterpiracy exercise conducted in September by Chinese and U.S. forces, followed by the U.S. invitation to China to participate in the Rim of the Pacific exercise in 2014.

“We’ll continue to use military engagement with China as one of several means to expand areas where we can cooperate, discuss, frankly, our differences, and demonstrate the United States’ commitment to the security of the Asia-Pacific region,” Helvey said.


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King Of the war!! Respect You Sire!!

 King Of the war!! Respect You Sire!!

I found a Simple, Greatest and more sensitive war hero in the wold!

This is the Profile of greatest war hero in indian ocean

Gotabaya Rajapaksa RWP RSP psc MSc

Mr. Gotabaya Rajapaksa assumed duties as the Secretary to the Ministry of Defence in November 2005. In this capacity he guided the Sri Lankan Defence Services to victory against the separatist terrorism of the LTTE, thereby ending a thirty year long conflict in Sri Lanka.

A career soldier, Mr. Rajapaksa joined the Sri Lanka Army in 1971 and served his country with distinction for twenty years. He commanded many anti-terrorist operations in the North and East of Sri Lanka at crucial times during the conflict. Amongst these, his command of the 1st Battalion of the Gajaba Regiment in the vital Vadamarachchi Operation in 1987, and his participation in Operation Thrividhabalaya in 1990 to rescue the Jaffna Peninsular from terrorist control are particularly noteworthy.

Following these accomplishments, Mr. Rajapaksa was appointed as the Deputy Commandant of Sir John Kotelawala Defence University in 1991 and, as a Lieutenant Colonel, was Coordinating Officer of the Welioya area from 1990 to 1991. Prior to that appointment, he was the Coordinating Officer of the Matale District and the Commanding Officer of the 1st Battalion, Gajaba Regiment from 1989 to 1990.

 King Of the war!! Respect You Sire!!

Hailing from the village of Weeraketiya in the South of Sri Lanka, Mr. Rajapaksa had his education at Ananda College, Colombo, Sri Lanka’s premier Buddhist school. He completed his basic officer cadet training at the prestigious Military Academy at Diyatalawa, and subsequently completed the Young Officers Course at Rawalpindi and the Mid-Career Course at Quetta, Pakistan. He completed his Staff Course at the Defence Services Staff College in Wellington, India, in 1983, and obtained his Masters Degree in Defence Studies from the University of Madras in the same year. He underwent advanced training in Counter Insurgency and Jungle Warfare at Assam, India, and graduated in Advanced Infantry Training from the Infantry School at Fort Benning, USA later in his career.

Following his successful career in the Sri Lanka Army, Mr. Rajapaksa obtained a Masters Degree in Information Technology from the University of Colombo. He subsequently worked as the Unix System Administrator of the prestigious Loyola Law School in Los Angeles, California, prior to returning to Sri Lanka to take up his appointment as the Secretary to the Ministry of Defence.

Mr. Rajapaksa is the brother of the current President of Sri Lanka, His Excellency Mahinda Rajapaksa, and the son of former Parliamentarian and Deputy Speaker of Parliament, the late Mr D.A. Rajapaksa. Mr. Rajapaksa and his wife, Ioma, reside in Colombo.

By Defense Ministry Of Srilanka


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HMS AMBUSH LINKS UP WITH SUPPORT SHIP

Defense News Asia 6 300x239 HMS AMBUSH LINKS UP WITH SUPPORT SHIP  Defense News Asia 3 300x236 HMS AMBUSH LINKS UP WITH SUPPORT SHIP

 

 

 

New hunter-killer submarine HMS Ambush mastered the art of berthing next to a support ship during trials with RFA Diligence in the safe waters of her home base.Ambush spent two days next to Diligence in Gare Loch in a manoeuvre known as ‘rafting up’ – vital for sustaining submarine operations around the globe.

more infor Royal Navy


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Red light from Gotabhaya Rajapaksa

 Red light from Gotabhaya Rajapaksa

Gotabhaya Rajapaksa

Defense secretary Gotabaya Rajapaksa has told the Divaina news paper that the Govt is keeping an eye on many people like the leader of the National Unity front Mr.Asad Sally, who are trying to push extremism in the country.

Mr.Secretary says that when Prabhakaran was taking arms in the early days politicians like Amiththalingam had defiened it as teenage horseplay. But he reminded that finally even Mr.Amiththalingam had to pay the price with his life.

Pointing out that the reason for arresting Mr.Asad Sally was his statements made in Tamilnadu which compells the extremists to take arms, Mr.Rajapaksa said that such things will not be tolarated while he is in charge.

He also said that he is aware of the people who are sheading “crocadile tears” about Mr.Sally’s arrest.


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Boston bomb contained traces of female DNA?

Boston bomb contained traces of female DNA?

Boston bomb contained traces of female DNA?

Female DNA was found on at least one of the explosive devices used in April 15’s Boston Marathon bombing, sources have told the Wall Street Journal and CBS News.

Citing “officials familiar with the case,” the Journal emphasizes that “there could be multiple explanations for why the DNA of someone other than the two bombing suspects” was uncovered that would not necessarily indicate complicity in the attack. For example, CBS notes, the DNA might conceivably have come from “a marathon spectator or a clerk who sold” materials that were ultimately used in the making of the bomb.

The only current suspects in the bombing, which killed three people and injured 260, are Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. Tamerlan was killed during a shootout with police on April 19. Dzkhokhar was arrested later that day. Investigators last week found no evidence of additional accomplices in the bombing, based on a “preliminary examination of the cellphones and computers” belonging to the brothers. However, police have not ruled out the possibility of an accomplice, and have not yet determined whether or not the DNA discovery indicates a woman’s involvement in the attack.

Authorities have visited Tamerlan’s widow, Katherine Russell, an FBI spokesman confirmed Monday, and did collect a DNA sample. However, Russell has not been charged with involvement in the bombing, and is not a suspect at this time.